The research project “Challenges for the Latvian State and Society and the Solutions in International Context — INTERFRAME-LV”, implemented under the leadership of the Latvian Academy of Sciences (LAS) represented by Full Member of the LAS Baiba Rivža, is one of the five projects of the national research programme (NRP) “Latvian Heritage and Future Challenges for the Sustainability of the State” that focuses on the long-term socio-economic development of Latvia and solutions to the problems identified. The paper presents the results of an analysis of growth in the knowledge economy affected by digitalisation and spatial and structural diversification (NACE Rev. 2 classification) in the high- and medium-high-tech manufacturing and services sectors as well as an assessment of the impacts of climate change on socio-economic development, performed by scientists of the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies as a LAS cooperation partner in the research project. Scientists from the University of Latvia, by examining the most important challenges for prosperity in Latvia, including income inequality and regional social stratification, and the negative impacts of social radicalisation and populism, focused on the ways to reduce and overcome the challenges, including ensuring the sustainability of the pension system. Based on their research on social security, activity, and values as well as on social theories, scientists from Rīga Stradiņš University — another LAS cooperation partner in the project — performed analyses and concluded that government policy documents were insufficiently based on both empirical and theoretical scientific findings. It is important that in the project “INTERFRAME-LV”, socio-economic sustainability in Latvia was researched and solutions to problems were sought applying a complex, interdisciplinary approach.